Friday, May 22, 2020

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Essay - 1487 Words

Definition An AAA (abdominal aortic aneurysm) is defined as enlargement of at least 3 cm of the abdominal aorta. The majority of abdominal aortic aneurysms begins below the renal arteries and ends above the iliac arteries. The exact cause of (AAAs) is unknown. However, it is thought to be due to a degenerative process of the abdominal aorta caused by atherosclerosis. Artherosclerosis represents a response to vessel wall injury caused by inflammation, genetically regulated defects in collagen and fibrillin, increased protease activity within the arterial wall, and mechanical factors (Stoelting p. 143). Pathophysiology The abdominal aorta consists of three distinct tissue layers including: the intima, media, and adventicia. There is†¦show more content†¦There is an increase in the concentration of proteolytic enzymes compared to their inhibitors in the abdominal aorta as age progresses. It is also thought that metalloproteinases (MMPs) may be a factor in the development of AAAs (Stoelting p. 143). There is an increase in expression and activity of MMPs in people with AAAs. MMPs are present in normal aortic tissue and are responsible for vessel remodeling. These proteinases are secreted into the extracellular matrix of AAAs by aortic smooth muscle cells and macrophages. Increased MMP activity favors the degradation of collagen and elastin in aneurysmal tissue (Laake). Signs and Symptoms Patients with ruptured AAAs present in many different ways. The most common manifestation of rupture is back pain with a pulsatile abdominal mass and hypotension. Additional symptoms may include syncope, flank mass, groin pain, or paralysis (Dalman and White). Unstable patients with a suspected ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm need immediate operation and control of the proximal aorta without preoperative confirmatory testing or optional volume resuscitation (Stoelting, p. 144). Anesthesia Management Surgical intervention is presently the only effective method of treating AAAs. The risk of surgical repair is outweighed by the risk of aneurysm rupture or aneurysm related death. PatientsShow MoreRelatedHow An Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?1408 Words   |  6 Pagesessay will discuss how an abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs, who are at risk of developing one, how the body responds as well as the clinical presentations of the signs and symptoms. It will also give an explanation of how the clinical presentations relates to the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms as well as how it affects homeostatic mechanisms. Before those subjects it is necessary to understand what an abdominal aortic aneurysm is. An abdominal aortic aneurysm is an augmented area of theRead MoreEssay about Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm2054 Words   |  9 Pagesdown U and become the aortic arch. As it pass behind the heart and starts to go down into the thoracic cavity it becomes the descending aorta, more specifically, the thoracic aorta. The diameter of the thoracic aorta is about two and a half centimeters wide. Once the aorta reaches the diaphragm and passes into the abdomen it converts the abdominal aorta. The abdominal aorta is about two centimeters wide. The thoracic aorta runs for about twenty centimeter and the abdominal aorta extends for aboutRead MoreThe Treatment Of An Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm ( Aaa )2078 Words   |  9 PagesAn aneurysm is permanent, excessive dilation of a blood vessel. It can occur in the aorta and other blood vessels; the most common location for an aneurysm is in the abdominal section of the aorta (Humphrey and Taylor [88] from ITL biomechanics thesis). There are a couple of definitions of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA): one is a local dilation in the aorta whereby the diameter of a dilated artery is more than 50% larger than the original diameter [1]. Another definition is when the externalRead MoreAn Elective Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair1187 Words   |  5 PagesCase Study Mrs. K, 72, was admitted to the critical care unit following an elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Before the surgery, Mrs. K, a retired elementary teacher, worked part-time at the local library running a children’s reading program. She was completely independent in her activities of daily living and lives alone in a one-bedroom apartment. Mrs. K has regular contact with her only child, a daughter, whom she sees every night for a visit. Two days following surgery, Mrs. K developedRead MorePhysical Status Score Improves Predictions Of Survival After Endovascular Aneurysm Repair1270 Words   |  6 PagesFull title: Self-reported fitness combined with American Society of Anaesthesiologists Physical Status Score improves predictions of survival after endovascular aneurysm repair Category: Original article Short title: Combining self-reported fitness and ASA improves survival predictions after EVAR Authors: Mary Barnes (BAppSc, GradDipMath)1 , Margaret Boult (BSc (Hons), GDIM)2, Prue Cowled (BSc(Hons), PhD)2, Robert A Fitridge (MS, FRACS)2 Affiliations: 1CSIRO, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, AustraliaRead MoreHesi Hypertension Essay5265 Words   |  22 Pagesfactors. C)  If there is a cause for your hypertension, it will become evident very soon. You will see the healthcare provider frequently until the cause is determined. INCORRECT If the hypertension did have a cause, clinical findings such as an abdominal bruit, variable pressures with a history of tachycardia, sweating, or a family history of renal disease may well already be present. D)  Dont worry. Stress causes your blood pressure to go up even more. Your healthcare provider does know whatRead MoreAneurysm : A Focal Dilation Of An Infected Arterial Wall2850 Words   |  12 PagesMycotic aneurysm is a focal dilation of an infected arterial wall. This uncommon disease follows an aggressive and unpredictable clinical course with significant mortality, and presents unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. This review discusses the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapeutic management of mycotic aneurysms. Historical Perspective Virchow first described a saccular outpoutching along an arterial wall corresponding to an embolic source in 1847 [1]. Mycotic aneurysms were initiallyRead MoreAneurysm Essay1246 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction Despite considerable advances in surgical treatment, the ruptured human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is still associated with a mortality rate of 65–85% [1, 2] . A diameter is currently the only reliable determinant of the imminent rupture of an AAA and patients exceeding 5.5 cm generally undergo surgical or endovascular intervention [2, 3] . However, the outcome of rupture is poor with less than half of the patients being delivered to the hospital alive [1, 4] . It is well knownRead MoreA Research Study On Vascular Imaging1548 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Vascular ultrasound (US) is an established non-invasive method of imaging the cardiovascular system. It is cheap, accessible and provides a rapid diagnosis of many vascular diseases such as presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm, deep vein thrombosis and limb arterial occlusions. The majority of vascular ultrasound currently done in the UK is trans-cutaneous ultrasound, in which the US probe obtains images of the vessels from above the skin. In recent years intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)Read MoreEssay On Fatty Acids862 Words   |  4 Pageseffect of omega-3 on measures of arterial stiffness, such as PWV and arterial wave reflections (7). Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are defined as permanent enlargements of the abdominal aorta which are strongly associated with male gender, age, smoking, hypertension, genetic, atherosclerosis. However, diabetes is associated with reduced AAA risk (8). An AAA is commonly defined as a maximal aortic diameter of ≠¥3 cm, though definitions such as ≠¥4 cm and an infrarenal to suprarenal diameter ratio

Thursday, May 7, 2020

The American Of The British Empire - 1041 Words

In the late half of the eighteenth century, the colonies of British North America were at a point in which they wanted more of their own identity and separation from Europe. Some of the colonists felt that way and others were quite content in continuing to live under Britain’s iron fist of legislation that they were imposing on the colonies. After the Seven Years War and the Proclamation Line of 1763, many colonists were outraged and began to display their emotions. The colonist protested through numerous tactics such as demonstrations of hate crimes towards the Native Americans living in the colonies. There were also some colonists that made their opinion heard that the colonies should succeed from the British Empire and be a new nation, and with any debatable topic like leaving the British Empire, there were those colonial loyalists that denounced the patriot idea of succession. Often in power battles, the third parties are rarely heard as well, however to see through eyes o f a African American being transported through the Atlantic Trading System and to hear his story puts the graphic nature of that journey into perspective. The decades leading up to and including the starting point of the American Revolution would help tip the colonies to where they would begin their path to becoming the United States of America, For nearly eighty years, Pennsylvania was a safe haven for colonists as well as Native Americans. †¦The residents of â€Å"Penn’s Woods† tried to avoidShow MoreRelatedThe American Of The British Empire1550 Words   |  7 Pagesover the Spanish Empire, the American colonies sought independence from the British monarchy and government. The Americans wanted a completely new government, without a King or any form of monarchy. While the Spanish crisis was one of leadership, connection to other empires, a desire to avoid partition. The American crisis in government came about through the actions of the King, and the colonist s questioning the authority of the British Parliament to rule over them. The American colonies servedRead MoreThe American Of The British Empire Essay1672 Words   |  7 PagesIn the British Empire, existed thirteen colonies found between the 1600s and the 1700s on the Atlantic Coast of North America. These thirteen colonies later on combined together into a new nation currently known as the United States of America. Immigrations from Britain and Germany had high growth rates and were all successful and thriving. These colonies had self-governments furthermore to similar political and legal systems. The self-government systems were based mainly on farmers who owned a pieceRead MoreEssay on The American Empire: Created From the British Empire2701 Words   |  11 Pages The American identity is not concrete. It grows, transforms, evolves, and the American people evolve in parallel. Through vote and through policy, media and protest, election and law, the people dictate the country’s, and the identity’s course. The identity that has roots in revolution. 1776, the United States breaks from Great Britain. The people free themselves, from oppression, from royalty, and begin the governmental experiment that will dominate the globe for the next two and a half centuriesRead MoreHow Did the Consolidation of the British Empire and Its Consequences Up to 1774 Affect the American Colonist’s Way of Life and Colonial Politics?2112 Words   |  9 Pagesup to the events of the early 1770s that in the end led to the decisions at the Continental Congress in 1774; skirmishes between colonial minutemen and British troops in early 1775; and the declaration of independence in 1776. However, I would contend that throughout the gradual colonial expansion of the English and later (from 1707) British Empire – at least up until the era discussed here – there was a fluctuation between more or less centralized control, and more or less efforts to centralize controlRead MoreThe Nineteen Years War : An Instrumental Turning Point For The American Colonies1746 Words   |  7 PagesThe Seven Years War in 1763 was an instrumental turning point for the American Colonies. Shortly after the initial excitement of winning the Seven Years War ended, tensions between the American colonies and the British Empire rose. These tensions were largely due to the financial mess that was created by the war, miscommunication, and a struggle for power. The British Empire’s need to regain power over the American colonies and organize the new territories gained by the war served to intensify theRead MoreBritish Of The British Empire1487 Words   |  6 Pagesproud to be r epresented as British; they were happy under the rule of both the British Empire and with the institution of monarchy. However, by 18th century, the colonies came to believe that they needed to break away from the British empire. For the colonies, being part of the British Empire meant that there were advantages as well as eventual disadvantages. The advantage was that, since the colonies were part of the British empire, they could trade with the richest empire on earth; there was anRead MoreThe American Revolution and Indias Independence Movement Essays1455 Words   |  6 Pages Systems of governance and authority can have a profound influence on the development of human societies. For example, the major influence of the British Empire in the development of Indian and American human societies. All types of governments – from local politics to federal bureaucracies to huge empires – maintain their authority through specific techniques, including fostering a shared identity (nationalism), developing economic interdependence, and sometimes using overt force. ChallengesRead MoreThe American Revolution Was NOT Justified Essay1025 Words   |  5 PagesThe American Revolution should never have h appened. The British were not tyrannical, oppressive rulers although the American colonies perceived them to be so. The American colonists misperceptions led to revolution and independence. Although Great Britain emerged victorious in the Seven Years War, it left Great Britain with significant debt. The British looked to America to help it. First the British began enforcing existing laws like the Navigation Acts, which put limits on colonial importsRead MoreThe American Revolution, By Walter Nugent, Gordon S.wood And Niall Ferguson1536 Words   |  7 PagesThe history of the American Revolution, colonial American and British influence is often debated and interpreted by many historians in they own points of view, these historians like Walter Nugent, Gordon S.Wood and Niall Ferguson hold American and British History in very high regard within their history book varying from one side to another. Niall’s book the â€Å"Empire† wrote not from a typical American perspective but that of the British and it considers half a millennium of some of the most momentousRead MoreThe War of 1812: A Report702 Words   |  3 Pagesindependence from their British oppressor s less than 40 years before, and the British Empire, including Canada. The conflict between the United States and the British Empire lasted approximately two years and eight months. There are many factors that led to the United States declaring war on the British Empire including trade restrictions that were put in place because of the conflict between the British Empire and France, impressment of American sailors into the Royal Navy, and British support of Native

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Virgin Atlantic Case Study Free Essays

Atlantics primary problem is that they were operating in the middle of the optimal utility model. Their slogan had become â€Å"Offering a First Class service at less than First Class fares†. In which Virgin Atlantic Is offering high quality at a low cost, which keeps them In the middle and not profitable. We will write a custom essay sample on Virgin Atlantic Case Study or any similar topic only for you Order Now It seems that Virgin Atlantic did not take Into account that offering a premium service as they were would come at a premium cost for them and when throwing In low cost fares Into the mix they were reading a loss and expectations they will not be able to sustain for a long time. Starting off as a low cost premium airline aimed towards the business class may have been there way into the market and obtain market share but at some point they needed to work their way out of the middle of the optimal utility model and shift either towards high quality or low cost, not both simultaneously to stay profitable. Seeing that there number one goal was to provide premium innovative services/ products they could have gone the route that Apple Inc. As done by providing innovative premium products at a premium prices rather than setting themselves up for future losses. A recommendation for Virgin Atlantics primary problem of operating In the middle of the optimal utility model, In which consumers want either high quality or low cost products and services. Virgin should keep moving forward with innovation and providing a premium experience for all of their passengers but do it at a higher price so that they do not create any losses. Another route to go in would be to become a upper low cost provider for their business class niche and stop spending on infilling entertainment and amenities and focus only on cutting costs which would allow them to be profitable as a low cost air transportation provider. Another secondary problem is that during Virgin Atlantics pursuit to be innovative, top management neglected to make innovations that would help the company in terms of lowering costs and Increasing profit. They only focused on innovations that benefited the consumers and not any self-interest. For example when Virgin Alertness management team decided that they did not want passengers to feel bored, they came up with innovative ways to keep them entertained during their flights such as pioneering individual video screens for every seat. But innovations like that did not help them cut any costs or increase fares significantly enough to increase profits or reduce costs. A recommendation in regards to creating innovations to help reduce costs and increase profits would be for Virgin Atlantic Airways to partner with small shipping impasses who could buy cargo space on Virgin Atlantic flights that are not at full capacity, so that they can generate more revenue on flights that are not traveling full of passengers. Another Innovative Idea would be to use the Individual video screens that they pioneered as ad space in the Mid and Economy class section of their planes. By doing so Vulgar Atlantic would be able generate additional revenues by selling ad space to advertisers, which would allow them to lower their cost per route, How to cite Virgin Atlantic Case Study, Free Case study samples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Chemistry Alkanes/Alkenes Essay Example

Chemistry Alkanes/Alkenes Essay Experiment: Comparing reactivities of alkanes and alkenes Aim: To compare the reactivities of an alkane and an alkene with bromine water and a solution of potassium permanganate (KMnO4). Equipment: †¢4 test tubes †¢Test-tube rack †¢4 pipettes Safety: safety glasses must be worn to prevent injury to the eyes. Ensure room is well ventilated whilst using the hydro carbons. Method: 1. Place 1 ml of sample A (cyclohexane) into a test tube containing 4 mls of the bromine water solution. Record observations of any reaction. 2. Place 1 ml of sample A (cyclohexane) into a test tube containing 4 mls of the potassium permanganate solution. Record observations of any reaction. 3. Place 1 ml of sample B (cyclohexene) into a test tube containing 4 mls of the bromine water solution. Record observations of any reaction. 4. Place 1 ml of sample B (cyclohexene) into a test tube containing 4 mls of the potassium permanganate solution. Record observations of any reaction. RESULTS SampleReaction with br2 waterReaction with acidified KMnO4Hydrocarbon (alkane/alkene) ANo reaction, both liquids immiscible, br2 water kept its yellow colourNo reaction, both liquids immiscible, KMnO4 solution kept its purple colourAlkane BBoth liquids reacted, causing 2 immiscible transparent liquidsBoth liquids reacted, causing the KMnO4 solution to change to a brownie red colourAlkene Analysis: The positive reaction in the experiment was the reaction between the alkene (cyclohexene) and both the bromine water and the potassium permanganate solution. Below is a balanced structural formula for the reaction between cyclohexene and the bromine water: We will write a custom essay sample on Chemistry Alkanes/Alkenes specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Chemistry Alkanes/Alkenes specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Chemistry Alkanes/Alkenes specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer

Thursday, March 19, 2020

The Molting Process for Insect Growth

The Molting Process for Insect Growth Molting,  known technically as ecdysis, is literally a period of growth for insects. In humans, an analogy can be drawn to molting as a period of personal transformation, such as the shedding of ones old self and the emergence of a new and improved person. Insects grow in increments. Each stage of growth ends with molting, the process of shedding and replacing the rigid exoskeleton. People often think molting is the simple act of an insect breaking out of its skin and leaving it behind. In truth, the process is complex and involves several parts. When Insects Molt After egg hatches, the immature insect feeds and grows. Its exoskeleton is like a shell. Eventually, the larva or nymph must shed its unyielding overcoat to continue its development. The exoskeleton which serves as its  external backbone is used for protection and support. Without an  exoskeleton, the insect could not survive. An old exoskeleton is shed when a new one is ready underneath, a process that can take days or weeks. Understanding the Exoskeleton To understand how molting occurs, it helps to know the three layers of the insect exoskeleton. The outermost layer is called the cuticle. The cuticle protects the insect against physical injury and water loss, as well as provides rigidity for muscle. It is this outermost layer that sheds during a molt. Underneath the cuticle is the epidermis. It is responsible for secreting a new cuticle when it is time to shed the old one. Underneath the epidermis is the basement membrane. This membrane is what separates the insect’s main body from its exoskeleton. The Process of Molting In molting, the epidermis separates from the outermost cuticle. Then, the epidermis forms a protective layer around itself  and secretes chemicals that break down the insides of the old cuticle. That protective layer becomes part of the new cuticle. When the epidermis has formed the new cuticle, muscular contractions and air intake cause the insect’s body to swell, thus splitting open the remains of the old cuticle. Finally, the new cuticle hardens. The bug squeezes out from the outgrown exoskeleton. The insect must continue to swell and expand the new cuticle, so it is large enough to allow room for more growth. The new overcoat is soft and much paler than the former one, but over a few hours, it becomes darker and begins to harden. Within a few days, the insect appears to be a slightly larger copy of its former self. Pros and Cons of Molting For some insects, a  big benefit to having a system of molting for growth is that it allows damaged tissue and missing limbs to be  regenerated  or substantially reformed. Complete regeneration may require a series of molts, the stump becoming a little larger with each molt until it is a normal or nearly back to normal size. A  major disadvantage to having to molt  as a system of growth is that the animal in question is entirely incapacitated during the process. An insect is completely vulnerable to a predator attack while undergoing molting.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Pope Benedict II

Pope Benedict II Pope Benedict II was known for: His extensive knowledge of  Scripture. Benedict was also known to have a fine singing voice. Occupations: PopeSaint Places of Residence and Influence: Italy Important Dates: Confirmed as Pope:  June 26, 684Died:  , 685 About Pope Benedict II: Benedict was Roman, and at an early age he was sent to the schola cantorum, where he became extremely knowledgeable in Scripture.  As a priest he was humble, generous, and good to the poor. He also became known for his singing. Benedict was elected pope shortly after the death of Leo II in June of 683, but it took more than eleven months for his election to be confirmed by Emperor Constantine Pogonatus. The delay inspired him to get the emperor to sign a decree putting an end to the requirement of an emperors confirmation. In spite of this decree,  future popes would  still undergo  an imperial  confirmation process. As pope, Benedict worked to suppress Monothelitism. He restored many churches of Rome, helped the clergy and supported the care of the poor. Benedict died in May of 685. He was succeeded by John V. More Pope Benedict II Resources: Popes BenedictAll about the popes and antipopes  who have gone by the name of Benedict through the Middle Ages and beyond. Pope Benedict II in Print The links below will take you to a site where you can compare prices at booksellers across the web. More in-depth info about the book may be found by clicking on to the books page at one of the online merchants. by Richard P. McBrien by P. G. Maxwell-Stuart Pope Benedict II on the Web Pope St. Benedict IIConcise biography by Horace K. Mann at the Catholic Encyclopedia.St. Benedict IIAdmiring bio at Christs Faithful People. The PapacyChronological List of PopesWhos Who Directories: Chronological Index Geographical Index Index by Profession, Achievement, or Role in Society The text of this document is copyright  ©2014 Melissa Snell. You may download or print this document for personal or school use, as long as the URL below is included. Permission is not granted to reproduce this document on another website. For publication permission, please visit Abouts Reprint Permissions page. The URL for this document is:http://historymedren.about.com/od/bwho/fl/Pope-Benedict-II.htm

Saturday, February 15, 2020

South Korea's Environmental Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

South Korea's Environmental Analysis - Essay Example There exist tight knitted system between the government and businesses in the labor market with the government ensuring that the laws and regulations on getting business startup licenses and procedures take the shortest time possible. This is carried out in order to continue increasing the labor market and completely eliminate the low unemployment rate still remaining in the nation. The only problem that the free market system has is that with the lack of strict market control by the government, corruption has been on the increase as people try to control the markets and monopolize it and especially the local market where the government does not bother much with. The corruption has rendered small and medium sized business had to flourish and succeed as the larger established businesses take up the larger share in the foreign investment and use their market stability to expand their wealth and sophistication making it hard to compete successfully (Mo & Brady, 2010). South Korea due to its establishment in the global market and economic success has it small and medium sized companies facing several entry and exit barriers. Some of these barriers include reputation, price discrimination, capital costs and organizational advantage among others (Mo & Brady, 2010). With some of these companies having established themselves in the industry, the startup companies face a very high capital cost just so that they can be able to establish themselves even if not match to the same level in assets and competition. The high capital costs requires heavy borrowing from banks and this leads to the company starting on a high debt percentage and this affects its sustainability in the industry. Even if it wants to exit the market, the debts and other overhead charges will be too much for it leading it bankrupt. With the large established organizations in South Korea such as Samsung and LG, they have cemented their organizational cultures and